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Mononucleosis is a viral infection causing fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck.
See also: Infectious mononucleosis (acute CMV infection)
Mono; Kissing disease
Mononucleosis, or mono, is often spread by saliva and close contact. It is known as "the kissing disease," and occurs most often in those age 15 to 17. However, the infection may develop at any age.
Mono is usually linked to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but can also be caused by other organisms such as cytomegalovirus (CMV).
Mono may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Your tonsils become swollen and develop a whitish-yellow covering. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently swollen and painful.
A pink, measles-like rash can occur and is more likely if you take the medicines ampicillin or amoxicillin for a throat infection. (Antibiotics should NOT be given without a positive Strep test.)
Symptoms of mononucleosis include:
Less frequently occurring symptoms include:
The doctor or nurse will examine you. This may show that you have:
Blood tests will be done, including:
The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Steroid medicine (prednisone) may be given if symptoms are severe.
Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir have little or no benefit.
To relieve typical symptoms:
You should also avoid contact sports while the spleen is swollen (to prevent it from rupturing).
The fever usually drops in 10 days, and swollen lymph glands and spleen heal in 4 weeks. Fatigue usually goes away within a few weeks, but may linger for 2 to 3 months.
Death is possible in people who have a weakened immune system.
The initial symptoms of mono feel very much like a typical viral illness. It is not necessary to contact a health care provider unless symptoms last longer than 10 days or you develop the following:
Call 911 or go to an emergency room if you develop:
Persons with mononucleosis may be contagious while they have symptoms and for up to a few months afterwards. How long someone with the disease is contagious varies. The virus can live for several hours outside the body. Avoid kissing or sharing utensils if you or someone close to you has mono.
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Jenson HB. Epstein-Barr virus. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed.Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 246.
Schooley RT. Epstein-Barr virus infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 385.
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